Two Eyes of Protest Ritual: Synergy and Opposition

in , by, 12.23

Who does not remember the figure of president Soeharto, the second president of the Republic of Indonesia? Pak Harto (as his familiar called) served as president of Indonesia within 32 years period. Leadership for over three decades it will be full of oppression, duping people, unfair, anarchists, and serves as a tyrant by means of authoritarian model of leadership. Indonesia during the Soeharto’s regime was apparently under control, development was everywhere, people get subsidized. However, if examined deeper, beneath it all there was corrupt practiced by government officials and Suharto dynasty that could not penetrate the public sphere. The President is known by the nickname "the smiling general" it does have a distinctive smile. A smile could mean happy, cynical or it could mean death. A smile that makes subordinates subject to his command despite a command without a word.

Soeharto's regime got a lot of controversy in the community everywhere. At first, the students began to flare and demonstrations occurred in almost every region in Indonesia. Students feel that an educated person has the responsibility to defend of the people rights. Students as agents of change be representative of the people without (obsession) of public office. They are a group of young people who have fresh ideas, pioneer ideology of liberation, a pioneer of democracy, did not be fooled by the government, injustice and tyranny. Therefore, there appeared various students movement in Indonesia to immediately lower the Indonesian president Soeharto, known by reformation.

This article I wrote to review my lecture article research, Mr. Nugroho Trisnu Brata for meet the task of The Structure of Javanese People Course in the fourth semester. The original title is "RITUAL PROTES GAYA JAWA-YOGYA: SEBUAH ANALISIS ANTROPOLOGI-STRUKTURAL"

 Based on data derived from the news of Yogyakarta mass media equipped with memories and experiences in the past, Nugroho Trisnu Brata made a depth analized of Java-Yogya-style rituals protests. Levi-Strauss's structuralism perspective used as an analytical tool. In action (ritual) protest that took place on May 20, 1998, there were two protest events in the same day at the same time however, the location and the actors were different. The first of ritual protest occurred in the morning in the yard of Graha Saba Pramana UGM conducted by campus community who had received the support of the rector. In time, the students were in the lowest position in the sphere of social class campus led by the rector. While the rector has the highest position within the university because he became an actor whose role as a leader. Opposition binary relationships (leader-led) between the rector and students often become conflicting relations (the opposition). At times, students and rectors were able to work in synergy when their had same position as group headed (sub-ordinate) by the Indonesian government.

The second ritual protest, named pepe, took place in the courtyard of Kasunanan Yogyakarta palace. The second ritual protest was performed by Yogyakarta people who aim to overthrow Soeharto’s government. People came to courtyard palace to express their aspirations peacefully and hopes got support of the Sultan. Although, politically Sultan was no longer the leader of kingdom, but rather a cultural leader in the Javanese culture, which Yogya became the center of Javanese culture. In this context, the people are the lowest position in the bureaucratic structure. People act as subordinate figures, led by Sultan and President Soeharto. Sultan has two roles at once, as the leader of the people were led by president. Meanwhile the president at the top, that is as a leader of the people and the supreme leader of all regional leaders (super-ordinate position). President Suharto became the sole target of opposition when the people and the Sultan in synergy. In other words, the sub-ordinate groups against the super-ordinate, where the number of sub-ordinate to dominate the super-ordinate groups.

In the other hand, It could be behind the support of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X pro to their people just because he did not want to lose the authority and people trust to the leadership of Sultan. If the Sultan does not pro-people, then one can do when people protest in another form, named mbalela. Mbalela is people or royal officials interaction space were not willing to come unto the King because of hatred, anger or disappointment to the King. Certainly, Sultan did not want to disappoint people and avoid conflict between two of them. If Sultan is able to protect people, the people will obey and love the Sultan. Manunggaling Kawula Gusti, where the position of king glorified by the people and as a reward the Sultan gave attention to the people, giving rise to synergy between the Sultan-the people . Any reason that Sultan pro to the people, the leadership of Sultan exemplary by other leaders.

Overall, essentially, Higher education institutions and the presence of the King or Sultan in Javanese society becomes an alternative that can be used as an expression of people aspiration when political institutions assessed "barren". Local wisdom can also explored to be an alternative changes to be better society.

***I feel Sorry if my English too Bad, but I have to learn, improve and practice to be better and better like you sister or brother :)
Hopefully that article add your knowledge....
If you want to ask me or disscus about something. just relax to send me an email... I will be happy receive your email.. thankyou
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